Post Page Advertisement [Top]

|Articles||Hausa|

Zamani Riga: Akalar Magungunan Gargajiya a Hannun Addini da Zamani

 The concept of medicine refers to any substance, which if taken or any act which if performed, cures or reduces the intensity of a sickness. On the other hand, the concept of sickness as used in the paper refers to any disease, unfulfilled need or a strong anxiety that courses unrest to an individual. The paper revisits the Hausa tradi-medical practices right from the origin of the word “magani” (medicine). Holding the Hausa popular saying “zamani riga” (citations change with time), the paper studies the influence of Islam and globalization on the traditional Hausa medicines. The paper also studies the merits and economic importance of such medicines. The findings of the research reveal that, despite their numerous importance, they have a number of disabilities. They include poor preparation procedures, storage as well as the usage. The paper lastly suggests that, government should design a special program to orient, support and modernize the Hausa tradi-medical practices.

Keywords: Medicines, Culture, Islam, Modernity

Abu-Ubaida SANI

 

And

Muhamamad Bala Jaja

 

Zamani Riga: Akalar Magungunan Gargajiya a Hannun Addini da Zamani

(The Influence of Islam and Modernity on the Hausa Tradi-medical Practices)

Tsakure

Magani ya shafi duk wani abu da za a yi amfani da shi ko a aikata domin a samu sauƙi ko waraka daga wata cuta. Idan aka ce cuta kuwa a nan, za ta iya kasancewa ta ciwo ko wata damuwa ko buƙata da ta tsaya wa mutum a rai. An ɗora wannan bincike a kan ra’ayin Bahaushe na “Zamani riga.” Binciken ya mai da hankali wurin waiwaye dangane da magungunan Bahaushe na gargajiya tun daga kan hasahen samuwar asalin kalmar magani. Daga nan sai aka duba tasirin Musulunci da kuma zamani kan magungunan gargajiya na Bahaushe. Bayan haka, takardar ta nazarci amfani da koma bayan da magungunan ke tattare da su. Sakamakon na nuna cewa, ɗimbin amfanin magungunan gargajiya bai hana su samun koma baya ba. Naƙasun da suke da shi ya danganci rashin ingancin hanyar sarrafawa da adanawa da kuma amfani da magungunan. A bisa haka ne aka ba da shawarar cewa gwamnati ta samar da shiri na musamman da zai samar da horo ga masu ba da magungunan gargajiya tare kuma da ba su tallafi, duk dai don inganta sha’anin maganin gargajiyar Bahaushe.

Muhimman Kalmomi: Magani, Gargajiya, Musulunci, Zamani

 

1.0 Gabatarwa

Fagen ilimin magungunan gargajiya ya daɗe yana jan hankalin manazarta da marubuta. An samu rubuce-rubuce masu ɗimbin yawa a wannan fanni. Hakan ba ya rasa nasaba da matsayin magani ga rayuwar ɗan Adam. Neman magani abu ne na yau da kullum. Tuni ya zama wani ɓangare na rayuwar ‘yan’adam baki ɗaya. Dalili kuwa shi ne, ba a rayuwa ba tare da cuta ba. Cutar na iya kasancewa ta jiki ko ta zuciya, wacce ake gani ko kuma wacce ba a iya gani.[1]

Zuwan Musulunci da kuma zamananci sun yi tasiri kan lamarin magungunan gargajiya na Bahaushe. Idan aka ce zamani kuwa, ana nufin rayuwar Bahaushe bayan cuɗanyarsa da baƙin al’ummu musamman Turawa. Saboda haka, tasirin zamani kan magungunan gargajiya na nufin ire-iren sauye-sauye da aka samu a sha’anin magani sakamakon zuwan Turawa da kuma abubuwan da suka zo da su. Sannan ya haɗa da abubuwan da suka shafi ilimin da Turawan suka zo da shi, wato boko. Shi kuwa zuwa Larabawa (a cikin wanna takarda), kai tsaye an danganta shi da shigowar addinin Musulunci. Takardar na da muradin waiwaitar lamarin maganin gargajiyar Bahaushe domin duba inda aka taso, da wurin da aka kwana da kuma wurin da aka dosa.

1.2 Manufar Bincike

Manufar wannan takarda ita ce bitar al’amarin magungunan gargajiyar Bahaushe tare da ire-iren sauye-sauye da aka samu a wasu lokuta cikin tarihi. Aikin zai mai da hankali kan:

i.                    Bitar lamarin magungunan gargajiya ta la’akari da sauye-sauye da aka samu sakamakon zuwan Musulunci da kuma tasirin zamani.

ii.                  Bitar alfanu da kuma illolin da ke tattare da amfani da magungunan gargajiya.

1.3 Ra’in Bincike

Bincike ko nazari dangane da maganin kowace al’umma abu ne da ya shafi rayuwar al’ummar gaba ɗaya. Bahaushe ya gama magana da ya ce: “lafiya uwar jiki.” Idan babu uwa, lallai babu rabin zance domin ko a dara ma “fid da uwa ake.” Yayin da aka ɗaura ɗamarar nazartar maganin gargajiya na Bahaushe, haƙiƙa an tunkari wani babban ginshiƙi ne a rayuwarsa. Za a iya tabbatar da hakan yayin da aka yi la’akari da cewa, nason magani ya mamaye al’ada da adabin Bahaushe baki ɗaya. Duk wani motsinsa, sai ya sanya magani ciki. A bisa haka, za a ɗora aikin ne bisa ra’ayin Bahaushe da ke cewa: “Zamani riga.”

Aikin zai yi ƙoƙarin nazartar yadda rigar take lokacin da Bahaushe ke amfani da magungunansa na gargajiya tsura. Sannan za a duba yadda ya ɗauraye rigar bayan Musulunci ya riske shi. Daga ƙarshe kuma sai ya sauya wa rigar tasa fasali domin dacewa da zamani bayan cuɗanyarsa da Turawa da kuma ƙarin ilimi da ya samu sakamakon karatun boko.

Ma’anar Magani

Bunza, (1990: 135) ya bayyana kirdadon samuwar kalmar magani da ya fi karɓuwa a tsakanin masana Hausa a yau. Wannan ra’ayi ya yi daidai da ɗaya daga cikin ra’ayoyin da suka shafi samuwar magani ga Bahaushe, wato ra’ayin gwadawa. Ra’ayin na nuna cewa, kalmar magani ta samu ne a lokacin da Bahaushe ke ƙoƙarin samar wa kansa magungunan cutuka daban-daban. Yayin da cuta ta samu, sai Bahaushe ya tattaro ganyaye da saiwu da sassaƙe-sassaƙe domin gwadawa, har sai ya samu wanda zai samar masa da waraka. Zai ɗauki nau’in sassaƙe ko saiwa ko ganye (da makamantansu), sai kuma ya ce: “Ma gwada wannan mu gani.” Wato dai za a gwada a gani ko za a dace?

Sannu a hankali har aka gajarce furucin. Daga nan aka koma cewa: “Ma yi ma gani.” Bayan tafiya ta yi tafiya ne kuma aka sake gajarce furucin zuwa: “Ma gani.” Yayin da aka haɗe kalmomin guda biyu, su ke ba da sunan “Magani.” A bisa wannan ra’ayi, kalmar ta “magani” gamin gambiza ce.

Ɗumbin rubuce-rubucen da aka gudanar game da magunguna a matakin duniya da kuma ƙasar Hausa ya sa akwai ma’anoni da dama da masana da marubuta suka samar. A luggance, Bargery, (1933: 743) ya ce: “Magani yana nufin riga-kafi da kariyar cuta.” A ɓangaren nazari kuwa, an samu marubuta da dama da suka bayyana ma’anar magani.[2] Kusan da zarar an ambaci kalmar magani, kowane Bahaushe ya san ma’anarta. Dalili kuwa shi ne, magani abu ne da mutum ke cuɗanya da shi kullum. Gobir, ya bayyana ma’anar magani da cewa:

“Hanya ce ta kawar da, ko kwantar da, duk wata cuta ta jiki ko ta zuciya, ko neman ɗaukaka, ko kariya daga makaru da jifa da sihiri ko siddabaru.” Gobir, (2012: 224)

Wannan ma’ana da Gobir ya bayar na nuni da cewa, ana neman magani ne domin ɗaya daga cikin waɗannan dalilai:

a.       Neman waraka

b.      Kwantar da cuta

c.       Neman ɗaukaka

d.      Neman kariya

Lura da wannan, akan nemi magani ne domin dalilai mabambanta. A wata ma’ana makamanciyar wannan, Sarkin Gulbi, (2014: 5) ya ce:

 

 

Magani shi ne duk wata hanya da za a yi amfani da ita domin riga-kafin cuta ko rage raɗaɗinta ko ma a kawar da ita gaba ɗaya ko warwale wata matsalar rayuwa. Wannan hanya tana iya kasancewa ta kimiyar zamani ko a gargajiyance, watau hanyar tsafi da tsibbace-tsibbacen al’umma.

A taƙaice duk wani abin da zai hana jin daɗi da walwala da nishaɗi da gudanar da rayuwa yadda ya kama, to sunansa cuta. Hanyar da ake bi domin kawar da shi (Ko kuma abin da ake amfani da shi domin kawar da wannan cuta) shi ake kira magani.

2.1 Hasashen Samuwar Magani

Masana ba su samu matsaya guda ba dangane da asalin samuwar magani ga ɗan’adam. Kasancewar haka bai zama abin mamaki ba idan an yi la’akari da cewar magani abu ne da ɗan’adam ya fara cuɗanya da shi tun farkon samuwar cuta gare shi. Cuta kuwa, babu wani lokaci a tarihin ɗan’adam da ba ta wanzu ba. A nan za a kawo wasu daga cikin ra’ayoyi ko hasashe dangane da asalin samuwar magani:

2.1.1 Gwaji

Masu wannan ra’ayi sun tafi kan cewa, ɗan’adam ya samu magani ne ta hanyar gwaji. Kamar dai yadda aka bayyana a sama (ƙarƙashin samuwar kalmar magani), magani ya samu ne ga mutum ta hanyar gwadawa. Yayin da cuta ta samu, sai a yi ta gwada hanyoyi da abubuwa daban-daban har dai sai an dace an samu waraka.

2.1.2 Dabbobi da Tsuntsaye

Wannan ra’ayi ya tafi kan cewa, an gano magunguna ne daga dabbobi da tsuntsaye. Idan wata dabba ba ta da lafiya, akan iya fahimtar hakan ta hanyar rashin walwala da za a lura da ita daga gare ta. A irin wannan yanayi ne masu kiyon dabbobin ke lura da ire-iren ganyaye da ciyayi da dabbobin ke ci. Lokacin da dabba ta samu sauƙi, sai ɗan’adam ya kimanta nau’ukan ganyaye da ta ci. Ta haka ne zai yi ƙoƙarin haɗa nau’ukan ganyayen tare da amfani da su yayin da makamanciyar cuta ta same shi. Ra’ayin na ganin cewa, wannan shi ne farkon samuwar magani.

2.1.3 Iskoki

Ra’ayin nan ya tafi kan cewa, iskoki su ne silar samuwar magani ga ɗan’adam. Iskoki na da ɗimbin ilimi dangane da magungunan cutuka daban-daban. Yayin da suke son wani daga cikin mutane, sai su samar da ilimin magani gare shi. Wani lokaci kuma ɗan’adam ne ke neman huwacewar magani ta hanyar fara hulɗa da iskoki.[3]

2.1.4 Ilhami

Wannan shi ne ra’ayin da Bunza, (1990: 136) ya fi aminta da shi. Ra’ayin ya tafi kan cewa, Ubangiji ne ke saukar da ilimin magani ga ‘yan’adam a matsayin ilhami. Yayin da mutum ba shi da lafiya, zai samu ilhami, misali: “Ka yi amfani da ganye kaza da sassaƙe kaza.” Yayin da ya gwada wannan magani, sai kuwa a dace. Daga nan zai ci gaba da amfani da wannan nau’in magani tare da sanar da sauran jama’a. A fahimtar wannan ra’ayi, a haka ne aka samu magunguna daban-daban.

Idan aka duba sosai, za a tarar da cewa dukkanin ra’ayoyin hasashe ne kawai na ilimi. Al’amarin samuwar magani abu ne mai dogon tarihi. Ayad, (2008: 18) ya nuna cewa, an fara amfani da maganin garganiya tun shekaru 1,000 kafin hijira. Ya ce:

The Greek Hippocrates is considered to be the father of ‘traditional’ western medicine. He lived around 1,000 year before Hijrah or 400 year before the birth of Jesus (BC), and built his medical practice on observation and experience using the natural world as a teacher that helped him to better understand how healing is achieved. (Ayad, 2008: 18)

Fassara

An ɗauki Bagirken nan Hippocrates a matsayin baban ‘maganin’ gargajiya na yammaci. Ya rayu kimanin shekaru 1,000 dubu kafin hijira, wato shekaru 400 kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa (BC). Ya gina binciken maganinsa kan lura da yanayi da kuma kaifin nazari. Ya ɗauki duniya a matsayin malama da ke taimaka masa wurin fahimtar yadda ake samun waraka.

A ra’ayin wannan bincike, ya fi kyau a ce “ɗan’adam ya fara ƙoƙarin nema wa kansa magani tun lokacin da ya fara cin karo da cuta a duniya.”

2.3 Rabe-Raben Magungunan Gargajiya

A mafi yawan lokuta, rabe-raben magungunan gargajiya na tafiya ne tare da rabe-raben cututtuka. Dalili kuwa shi ne, cuta da magani tare suke tafiya. Kamar yadda suke tare a zahiri, haka ma suka kasance a fagen nazari tare. Masana da dama sun ba da rabe-raben magungunan gargajiya. Wani abin burgewa shi ne, dukkanin ra’ayoyin na masana alƙibla guda suka dosa, amma ta fuskoki mabambanta. Bunza, (1990: 154-141) ya raba magani zuwa manyan rukune guda biyu, wato:

i.                    Magungunan cutar jiki

ii.                  Buƙatocin ɗan’adam

Gobir, (2012: 167-170) ya raba cutuka zuwa manyan rukunai guda biyu, (i) Cutukan jiki da kuma (ii) Cutukan zuciya. Lura da wannan rabo da ya yi, za a iya fahimtar yana da ra’ayin cewa magunguna sun rabu zuwa gida biyu manya. Na farko shi ne magunan cutukan jiki. Na biyu kuwa ya kasance magunan cutukan zuciya. Yayin da aka nazarci waɗannan rabe-rabe, za a tarar ba su ci karo da juna ba. Cutukan zuciya dai su ne buƙatocin ɗan’adam.

Kalmar Bature ta medicine na da kamar sauƙi wurin fassara. Idan aka zo fassarar kuwa, za a tarar da cewa abin ya wuce yadda ake tsammani. Dalili kuwa shi ne, kalmar magani gama-gari ce. Ta tattara dukkanin nau’ukan hanyoyin samar da waraka da suka haɗa da na jiki da kuma na zuciya. Kowanne daga ciki kuwa yana da sunan da Hausawa suka laƙaba masa. Za a fi fahimtar yadda abin yake yayin da aka waiwaici rabe-raben magunguna manya da ƙananan da ake da su.

Wannan aiki ya yaba da hikimar da ke cikin dukkannain rabe-raben da masana suka bayar kamar yadda aka zayyana a sama. Aikin ya gamsu da salon da Gobir, (2012: 242) ya yi amfani da shi domin bayyana rabe-raben magani. Duk da haka, a ƙarƙashin rukunin magungunan buƙatun zuciya, wannan bincike ya ɗan sha bamban da ra’ayin Gobir. Takardar ta raba magungunan biyan buƙatun zuciya zuwa Son kai da na sharri da kuma na alkairi. Hakan ya zama saɓanin na Gobir da ya kawo su a matsayin na alheri da kuma na sharri.[4] Ga yadda abin yake:

 

Misalai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Magani

Cutuka

Jiki

Ciki

Sanyin ƙashi

Ƙurjin hanji

Ciwon ƙoda

Amosani

Waje

Gwaiwa

Makanta

Gyambo

Karaya

Ƙwaƙwalwa

Taɓin hankali

Farfaɗiya

Rawar kai

Mantau

Kare kai

Sagau

Tauri

Zana

Baduhu

 

Buƙatun zuciya

Alkairi

 

Maganin kasuwanci

Tsaraka

Son kai

Bi-ta-zai-zai

Soyayya

Neman mulki

Sharri

Kurciya

Kashe rai

Firaƙi

Gumuni

 

 

Kwaikwayo Daga: Gobir, (2012: 242).

Yawaitar nau’ukan magani ba ya rasa nasaba da yawan da cututtuka suke da shi. Kowane nau’in cuta na da irin nasa nau’in magani. Hanyoyin da ake samun cutuka sun bambanta, haka ma hanyoyin samar da magungunan waɗannan cutaka. Misali, Harold da wasu (1964: 203) suna da ra’ayin cewa:

It is clear that becoming a mental patient is a socially structured event.

Fassara

A bayyane yake cewa, ciwon hauka lamari ne na zamantakewa da ke ɗaukar tsawon lokaci kafin tabbatuwa.

Wannan fahimta na nuna cewa ciwon hauka ya shafi matsalolin zamantakewa da ke taruwa su yi yawa a ƙwaƙwalwar ɗan’adam. Kenan dai, kafin a shawo kan wannan nau’in cuta sai an bi kadun lamarin tare da gano inda bakin zaren yake tare da yi wa igiyar tufka.

2.4 Masu ba da Magungunan Gargajiya

A al’adance, akwai rukunin jama’a da Bahaushe ya riƙa a matsayin masu ba da magungunan gargajiya. Gobir, (2012: 264-271) ya kawo masu ba da magungunan gargajiya a Bahaushiyar al’ada, musamman magungunan cutukan da suke da nasaba da iskoki. Sun haɗa da:

2.4.1 Bokaye

Sa’id, (2006: 49) ya bayyana boka a matsayin “mai maganin gargajiya wanda ke ta’ammuli da aljanu.” Kafin zuwan Musulunci ƙasar Hausa, boko na kan gaba wurin samar da magunguna ga masu cutuka daban-daban. Yana amfani da iskoki domin gano cutar da ke damun majinyaci tare da ba shi magani domin samun waraka. Za ta iya yiwuwa ra’ayin da ya tafi kan cewa tushen magani shi ne iskoki ya yi la’akari ne da al’amarin bokaye da bokanci. Bokaye na ba da magungunan cutuka da suka haɗa da na jiki da na zuciya.

2.4.2 ‘Yan bori

‘Yan bori su ma sanannu ne a ɓangaren ba da magungunan gargajiya. Akan kai majinyaci wurin ‘yan bori, musamman idan an kasa gane nau’in cutar da ke damun sa. A mafi yawan lokuta akan yi wa majinyacin girka, musamman idan cutar ta yi kama da shafar iskoki. Dangane da lamarin ‘yan bori a ɓangaren ba da magani, ga abin da Dr Mamman Shata ke cewa:

Yau wannan zamani,

Wannan lokaci,

Ko wani ke zazzaɓi,

Ka ga ana gai da shi,

Yana amsawa jika-jika,

Ku kai mai borin Sule,

Sarkin Bori Sule.

 

Yanzu sai ka ga sun warware,

Suna yawon duniya.

(Dr Mamman Shata: Waƙar Malam Babba na Ƙofar Gabas)

A cikin ɗiyan waƙar da ke sama, Shata na bayyana ƙwarewa da ficen da ‘yan bori ke da shi a ɓangaren ba da magunguna. Ya nuna cewa, duk tsananin ciwo da ke damun majinyaci, nan take zai samu sauƙi da zarar an kai shi wurin ɗan bori.

2.4.3 Masu Sana’o’in Gargajiya

Wannan wani rukuni ne na masu ba da magungunan gargajiya. Kusan kowane rukuni na masu sana’o’in gargajiya na da nau’in magani da suke bayarwa. Da ma dai Bahaushe na cewa: “Kowa a gida sarki ne.” A mafi yawan lokuta, shuwagabannin waɗannan sana’o’i su suka fi ba da magani. A jadawalin da ke ƙasa, an kawo misalan ire-iren magungunan da masu sana’o’in gargajiya ke bayarwa.

 

Masu Sana’o’i

Shugaban Sana’a

Nau’in Magani

1.       

Maharba

Sarkin Baka

1. Maganin ciwon daji

2. Maganin harbin kasko

3. Maganin ciwon tsuntsu (Ƙyan-ƙyan)

2.       

Mahauta/RunDawa

Sarkin fawa

1. Maganin ƙaho

3.       

Maƙera

Sarkin maƙera

1. Maganin ƙunan wuta

4.       

Masassaƙa

Sarkin ice/Sake

1. Maganin sanyi

5.       

Masunta/Sarkawa

Sarkin ruwa

1. Maganin sanyi

2. Makwakkwafa[5]

6.       

Ɓarayi

Sarkin ɓarayi

1. Maganin Jingina bango

2. Maganin Baduhu

3. Maganin sha-tiƙa

7.       

Wanzamai/Ma’aska[6]

Sarkin aska

1. Maganin mayu

2. Maganin tsai da jini

3. Maganin kaifi

Madogara: Sallau, (2009: 104); Gobir, (2012: 271)

2.4.4 Wasu Mutane na Musamman

Bahaushe na kallon wasu mutane na musamman a matsayin masu ba da magani. A tunaninsa, Ubangiji ya huwace musu damar ba da magani bisa yanayin halittarsu. Wasu daga cikin mutane na musamman da ke ba da magani sun haɗa da:

a.      ‘Yan-Biyu: Yayin da aka haifi jarirai biyu lokaci guda, ana ce musu ‘yan-biyu ko kuma tagwaye. Bahaushe na ganin cewa, tagwaye na da baiwar bayar da magani.

b.      Mai Ƙaton Kai: Bahaushe ya ɗauki mai ƙaton kai a matsayin wanda ke da baiwa ta ba da magani. Ba mamaki ya yi la’akari da yanayin halittarsa ne wanda ta saɓa wa ta al’ada. Da haka ne ya yanke wannan hukunci.

2.5 Mahaɗin Maganin Gargajiya

Wani abin burgewa shi ne, haɗa maganin gargajiya na buƙatar ilimi na musamman. Sanin mahaɗin magani wani ilimi ne mai zaman kansa. Masu shi suna amfani da shi a matsayin baiwa ko wata huwacewar Ubangiji. Jadawalin da ke ƙasa ya kawo wasu daga cikin mahaɗan magungunan gargajiya:

 

Rukunin Mahaɗin Magani

Mahaɗin Magani

1.       

Bishiyoyi

        i.             

Ganye

      ii.             

Kauci

    iii.             

Hure

    iv.             

Sassaƙe

      v.             

Ƙaro

    vi.             

Saiwa

  vii.             

Gawai

viii.             

Reshe

    ix.             

Lingaɓi

      x.             

Mai

    xi.             

‘Ya’ya

2.       

Tsirrai

        i.             

Fure

      ii.             

‘Ya’ya

    iii.             

Ganye

    iv.             

Ɓawo

      v.             

Sansame

    vi.             

Saiwa

3.       

Dabbobi

        i.             

Gaɓoɓi

Jiki, kai, wutsiya, ƙafa, ƙassa

      ii.             

Sassan jiki

Fata, harshe, haƙora, jijiya, gashi, ido, al’aura, kunne, kayan ciki

    iii.             

Najasa

Kashi, fitsari, maniyi

    iv.             

Ruwa-Ruwa

Kwantsa, miyau, jini, majina, kitse, ɓargo

4.       

Ƙwari

        i.             

Gaɓoɓi

Jiki, kai, wutsiya, ƙafa, ƙassa

      ii.             

Sassan jiki

Fata, harshe, haƙora, jijiya, gashi, ido, al’aura, kunne, kayan ciki

    iii.             

Najasa

Kashi

    iv.             

Ruwa-Ruwa

Ƙwai, saƙa, kishe

5.       

Tsuntsaye

        i.             

Gaɓoɓi

Jiki, kai, wutsiya, ƙafa, fukafuki

      ii.             

Sassan jiki

Fata, harshe, haƙora, jijiya, gashi, ido, al’aura, kunne, kayan ciki

    iii.             

Najasa

Kashi

    iv.             

Ruwa-Ruwa

Ƙwai, kitse

6.       

Ɗan’adam

        i.             

Gaɓoɓi

Yatsa, hannu, ƙafa, kai, tsara, dantse, ƙashi

      ii.             

Sassan jiki

Zuciya, tsoka, ido, al’aura, dubura, kunne, harshe, haƙora, gira, gashi, farce, jijiya, haƙarƙari, fatar jiki, maraina

    iii.             

Najasa

Boli, kashi, maniyyi

    iv.             

Ruwa-Ruwa

Miyau, jini, hawaye, majina, zufa, ɓargo

7.       

Abubuwan da ke ƙarƙashin ƙasa

        i.             

Farar ƙasa

      ii.             

Karmatako

    iii.             

Ƙanƙara da tama

    iv.             

Kanwa

      v.             

Balma

    vi.             

Kowa

8.       

Ruwa

i.

Ruwan kogi

ii.

Ruwan tafki ko gulbi

iii.

Ruwan sabuwar tukunya

iv.

Raɓa

v.

Ruwan mashaya

vi.

Ruwan tukunyar matar da ba ta taɓa yaji ba har na tsawon shekaru 30

vii.

Ruwan marmaro

viiii.

Ruwan gidan makaho

ix.

Ruwan gidan sarki

9.       

Wasu abubuwa na musamman

i.

Sutura

ii.

Surkulle

Kwaykwaya Daga: Bunza, (2004: 2-10); Gobir, (2012: 242-248)

Dangane da amfani da magani kuwa, akwai fitattun hanyoyi da suka haɗa da:


1.      Sha

2.      Shafawa

3.      Hayaƙi

4.      Turare

5.      Suraci

6.      Binnewa

7.      Ɗaurawa



2.6 Shigowar Musulunci da Sauye-Sauye a Magungunan Bahaushe

Ba a yi matsaya ba dangane da lokacin da Musulunci ya zo ƙasar Hausa. Hakan na da nasaba ne da ƙarancin ilimin rubutu da karatu a wancan lokacin. Rubuce-rubuce da suka gabata da dama sun waiwaici tarihin shigowar Musulunci ƙasar Hausa. Akwai manyan abubuwa da kusan dukkani wani mai magana kan wannan batu ba zai tsallake su ba. Sun shafi manyan abubuwan da suka faru cikin tasirin shigowar Musulunci ƙasar Hausa. Yahaya, (2011: 8-14) ya kawo su daki-daki. Ra’ayoyin malamai dangane da lokacin da Musulunci ya iso ƙasar Hausa sun haɗa da:

1.      Akwai ra’ayin da ke nuna cewa Musulunci ya iso Borno tun lokacin sarki Mai Dunama (1098-1150).

2.      Limamin Bauchi Alhaji Ahmadu Muhammad da Alhaji Nasiru Kabara Kano na da ra’ayin cewa Musulunci ya iso Afirka ta Yamma, musamman Agadas da Borno sannan ya ƙaraso ƙasar Hausa tun a ƙarni na bakwai (7).

3.      Ra’ayi na uku shi ne wanda ke nuna cewa, Musulunci bai iso ƙasar Hausa ba sai a wajajen ƙarni na goma sha ɗaya (11th century).

Ko ma yaya abin yake, akwai yaƙinin cewa Musulunci ya bunƙasa a ƙasar Hausa a ƙarni na goma sha biyar (15). Rukunan baƙin jama’a da suka taimaka wajen bunƙasar addinin Musulunci a ƙasar Hausa a wancan lokaci sun haɗa da:

1.      Fulani Torankawa da Sulluɓawa daga Futa Toro ta ƙasar Malle da

2.      Wangarawa daga Senigal da kuma

3.      Malami mai suna Shehu Abdulkarim Almaghili daga Morocco (Yahaya, 2011: 11-12).

Magungunan Musulunci na da alaƙa da Larabawa musamman idan ana magana ne daga mahangar Bahaushe. A bisa wannan ne Ayad, (2008: 22) ya ce:

Islamic medicine was definitely no part of divine revelation but was something customarily practiced by the Arabs.

Fassara:
Haƙiƙa magungunan Musulunci ba su samu ta hanyar wahayi ba. Sun kasance wani ɓangare ne na al’adun Larabawa.

Shigowar Musulunci ƙasar Hausa ya samar da sauye-sauye da dama ga lamarin magani. Sauye-sauyen sun shafi manyan ɓangarori da suka haɗa da (a) ƙaruwar rukunonin masu ba da magungunan gargajiya da (b) sabbin kayan haɗin magunguna da kuma (c) sauyi a hanyoyin ɗebo magani da sarrafa shi. A ƙasa an kawo tsokaci dangane da kowane:

2.5.1 Ƙaruwar Rukunonin Masu ba da Magungunan Gargajiya

Shigowar Musulunci ƙasar Hausa ya samar da bunƙasa a ɓangaren rukunin jama’a da ke ba da magungunan gargajiya. A sakamakon haka ne aka samu malamai masu ba da magani. Waɗannan malamai kuwa su ake kira da malaman tsibbu. Tasowar malaman tsibbu ya kashe kasuwar bokaye da ‘yan bori matuƙa. Ga Abin da shata ke faɗi dangane da Malam Babba:

Bugi ƙasa ka duba musu,

Shidda shidda ka ɗauke uku,

Ka ga idan ka haɗa su sun zama tara,

Kowa aka gani cikin tara ɗin nan,

Yai sha’ani nai shi ta rufa …

Ka je Baba ya duba maka.

Idan ya zana ƙasa ya duba maka,

Ya ɗaga kai ya shaida maka,

Ka ga kamar da shi ne a kai.

(Dr Mamman Shata: Malam Baba na Ƙofar Gabas)

Yayin da aka nazarci wannan ɗiyar waƙa da ke sama, za a tarar da cewa malaman tsibbu da bokaye ko ‘yan bori ɗanjuma ne da kuma ɗanjummai. Ga dai Malam Babba yana duba tamkar yadda bokaye ke yi! Wasu rukunan masu ba da magunguna da suka samu sakamakon zuwan Musulunci su ne malaman ruƙiyya. An samu bunƙasar ruƙiyya a ƙasar Hausa a wajen ƙarni na 21 (Gobir, 2012: 167).

 

2.5.2 Sabbin Kayan Haɗin Magunguna

Musulunci ya zo da fannanin ilimi daban-daban. Daga cikinsu har da ilimin magani. Ya taho da nau’ukan kayan haɗin magani da suka bambanta da na Hausawa. Hausawa sun amfana da wannan dama ta hanyar aron ilimin. Daga cikin mahaɗan magani da suka riski Bahaushe a sakamakon zuwam Musulunci akwai:

a.       Ruwan zam-zam

b.      Habbatus sauda

c.       Man zaitun

2.5.3 Ɗebo Magani da Sarrafa shi

Ta fuskar ɗebo magani da sarrafa shi, Musulunci ya samar da sauye-sauye. Al’adun Hausawa da dama ba su ci karo da koyarwar Musulunci ba. Wannan ne dalilin da ya sa Musulunci ya bar su da ire-iren waɗannan al’adu. Hakan ya sa an karɓi addinin cikin sauƙi. Ɗaya daga cikin al’amuran gargajiyar Bahaushe da ba su ci karo da addinin ba shi ne neman waraka. Duk da haka, akwai sauye-sauye da Musulunci ya samar dangane da abin da ya shafi ɗebo magungunan da kuma sarrafa su.  Misalan sauye-sauye da aka samu a wannan ɓangare sun haɗa da:

a.       Hana ɗebo magani tsirara

b.      Hana ɗebo magani ta baya ko idanu rufe

c.       Hana yin wasu surkulle kafin ɗibar magani

d.      Ƙoƙarin tabbatar da sahihancin magani daga koyarwar addinin Musulunci

e.       Ƙoƙarin tantance lokutan shan magani da kuma adadin da za a sha

f.        Yawaita amfani da zuma da ruwan zam-zam a matsayin mahaɗan magunguna

Bayan tafiya ta yi tafiya, an samu ɗakunan ba da magunguna da ake kira Islamic Chemist. Nau’ukan magunguna da ake bayarwa a ire-iren waɗannan ɗakunan ba da magani su ake kira Islamic Medicine wato “magungunan Musulunci.”

2.6 Tasirin Zamani a Kan Magungunan Bahaushe

Zamani ya yi gagarumin tasiri a ɓangaren magungunan gargajiya na Hausawa. Tasirin ya kai matsayin da sai an yi da gaske a iya bambance wasu daga cikin nau’ukan magungunan daga samfurin magani na zamani. Hakan na faruwa ne sakamakon sauye-sauyen da zamani ya zo da su, wanda kuma suka yi tasiri kan yanayin sarrafawa da sayarwa da kuma amfani da magungunan gargajiya. Za a iya kallon wannan tasiri a ɓangarorin da suka haɗa da:

a.      Naɗewa (Pacaging)Wannan ya shafi gyara magunguna tare da sanya su cikin leda ko fanko ko kwalba (da makamantansu) mai kyau. Haƙiƙa hakan tsari ne da ya samu ga Hausawa bayan cuɗanyarsu da baƙin al’ummu.

b.      Sanya Suna (Labelling): Yawanci wannan na samuwa ne bayan naɗewa. Akwai masu magungunan gargajiya a yau da ke amfani da sunaye na musamman. Da zarar an ga irin wannan suna, kai tsaye za a gane mai maganin. Suna kuwa ya shafi abubuwa guda biyu. Na farko akwai sunan santa (wannan na zaman kamar kamfani). Na biyu shi ne sunayen ɗaiɗaikun nau’ukan magunguna da ake da su. Ga misalai a jadawali da ke ƙasa:

 

Santocin Magunguna

 

Sunayen Magunguna

1.       

Sangarib Trado-Medical Centre (Kano)

 

Hayaƙin sheɗanu

2.       

 

 

Miski

3.       

 

 

Bom

4.       

 

 

Garlic oil

5.       

 

 

Turaren sheɗanu

 

c.       Allon Alama (Signboard): Akan samu allon alama ɗauke da sunan wata santa ta maganin gargajiya. Hakan na mazaunin ishara ga masu neman santar da kuma tallatawa ga sauran al’umma. Haƙiƙa wannan dabara ta samu ne a sakamakon tasirin zamani.

d.      Gwaji/Awo/Awu (Test): A yau akwai santocin ba da magungunan gargajiya da ke gwada majinyaci kafin ba shi magani. Sau da dama sukan yi amfani da na’urorin zamani ne domin gudanar da gwajin.

e.       Ƙayyada Lokaci da Adadin Shan Magani (Dose): An fara ƙayyade lokaci da adadin shan magani tun bayan tasirin magungunan Musulunci a kan na gargajiyar Bahaushe. Da tasirin zamani ya samu kuwa, sai lamarin ya ƙara bunƙasa.

f.        Talla: A ɓangaren tallata magungunan gargajiya na Hausa a yau, akwai sauye-sauye da dama. Misalan waɗannan sauye-sauye sun haɗa da:

i.                    Amfani da mota ko mashin ko baro

ii.                  Amfani da kafafen sadar da zumunta

iii.                Amfani da kakafen watsa labarai

iv.                Amfai da amsa kuwwa

3.1 Amfani da Illolin Magungunan Gargajiya

Kamar yadda Bahaushe ke cewa: “kowane allazi da nasa amanu,” magungunan gargajiya na da nasu allazi da kuma amanu. Jadawali da ke ƙasa na ɗauke da wasu daga cikin amfanin magungunan gargajiya da kuma illolinsu.

MAGUNGUNAN GARGAJIYA

 

Amfani

 

Illoli

1.       

A mafi yawan lokuta, magungunan gargajiya na da araha.

1.

A wasu lokuta ba a amfani da ingantattun hanyoyin tantance cuta kafin ba da magani.

2.       

Wasu daga cikin magungunan gargajiya ba su buƙatar a saye su. Ana samun ire-iren magungunan daga tsirrai da itatuwa (da makamantansu) da ke zagaye da muhallin Bahaushe da dazukansa.

2.

Babu ingantacciyar hanyar auna adadi da yanayin amfani da magani.

3.       

Amfani da magungunan gargajiya na taimakawa wajen yaɗa ilimin magani tsakanin al’umma. Masu tasowa za su ci gaba da kallon nau’ukan magunguna daban-daban da ake amfani da su.

3.

Babu ingantacciyar hanyar tantance ko magani na ɗauke da sinadarai da ke da illa ga lafiya.

4.       

Hanya ce ta bunƙasa tattalin arziki da morar saukakkun albarkatu da ke zagaye da muhalli da dazukan al’umma.

4.

Wasu magungunan na cutarwa ne. Wato ana amfani ne da wasu dagacikin magungunan domin cutarwa.

5.       

Amfani da magungunan gargajiya na sa a kauce wa wasi-wasi ko zulumin shunku ko ha’inci da cuta da za a iya ɗura wa al’umma yayin da suke samun magungunansu daga baƙin al’ummu. Ana iya ɓoye wata cuta cikin magani domin illatar da duk wani wanda ya sha.

5.

Babu kyakkyawar tanadin adanar magungunan gargajiya.

6.       

Hanya ce ta samun abin masarufi ga wasu jama’a daga cikin al’umma.

 

 

7.       

Hanya ce ta kyautata kiyon lafiya.

 

 

 

3.2 Sakamakon Nazari

Lallai an samu sauye-sauye da dama a ɓangaren magungunan gargajiyar Bahaushe. Ire-iren waɗannan sauye-sauye sun fara tun lokacin da addinin Musulunci ya zo wa Hausawa. A nan ne aka samu tasirin magungunan Musulunci.  A lokacin ne Hausawa suka fara amfani da nau’ukan magunguna da aka bayyana cikin Alkur’ani da hadisai. Sun kuma samu wasu nau’ukan itatuwa daga Larabawa. A taƙaice dai, zuwan addinin Musulunci ya samar da sauyi babba ga lamarin magungunan Bahaushe na gargajiya.

A ɓangare guda kuwa, lamarin magungunan gargajiyan Bahaushe ya kasance tamkar hanjin jimina ne, wato “akwai na ci akwai na zubarwa.” Abin nufi a nan shi ne, duk da ɗimbin alfanun da ke tattare da magungunan na gargajiya, akan same su tattare da wasu koma baya. Waɗannan koma baya sun fi shafar yadda ake ɗiba da adanawa da kuma ba da maganin. Akan ajiye ire-iren magungunan a cikin ƙyalle ko tsumma ko takarda ko leda mai datti. Dattin kansa na iya kasance cuta ta daban ga duk wanda zai sha maganin. Dangane da ba da magani kuwa, ba a faye samun ƙa’ida ta musamman ba da ta shafi adadin maganin da za a sha da lokutan shan.

3.3 Kammalawa da Shawarwari

Haƙiƙa al’amarin magani babban fage ne mai matuƙar muhimmanci a rayuwar kowace al’umma. Daga ciki har da Hausawa. Amfanin magani ya sa manazarta da marubuta suka daɗe suna tururuwar leƙa ire-iren hikimomi da ɓangaren ya ƙunsa. Magungunan gargajiyar Bahaushe sun daɗe suna taimakawa a ɓangaren waraka da biyan buƙatun rayuwa tare kuma da kare kai. Bayan zuwan Musulunci, sai nau’ukan magungunan suka ƙaru, inda kuma wasu suka dusashe, musamman waɗanda suka ci karo da koyarwar Musulunci. Zamani kuwa ya kawo ci gaba a ɓangarori daban-daban. Wannan ya shafi sarrafa magungunan da yadda ake tallata su da kuma yadda ake amfani da su. A hasashen wannan bincike, idan tafiya ta yi tafiya, magungunan gargajiyar Bahaushe za su samu ci gaba wanda har sai an mance da kamannunsu da fasalinsu na gargajiya. Lura da ɗimbin alfanun magungunan gargajiya na Bahaushe da kuma koma baya da yake da shi a gefe guda, wannan takarda ta tanadi shawarwari da ke biye:

i.                    Gwamnati ta samar da shiri na musamman inda masu ba da magungunan gargajiya za su samu horo a zamanance. Horon ya shafi:

a.       Ilimin binciken nau’in cuta da ke damun maras lafiya,

b.      Ilimin auna sinadaren magani domin cire waɗanda ke da illa,

c.       Ilimin adana magani a tsaftace da makamantansu.

ii.                  Gwmnati ta tallafa wa masu ba da magungunan gargajiya da na’urorin zamani da za su taimaka musu ga wannan sana’ar. Wannan zai faru ne kawai bayan samun horo na musamman.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Manazarta

Ayad, A. (2008). Healing Body and Soul. Saudi Arabia: International Islamic Publishing House.

Bargery, G.P. (1934). Hausa-English Dictionary, English-Hausa Vocabulary. London: Oxford University Press.

Bunza, A. M. (2004). Mahaɗin Magungunan Gargajiya. Takardar da aka gabatar a taron ƙara wa juna sani, Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato

Bunza, A. M. (1990). Hayaƙi Fid da na Kogo (Nazarin Siddabaru da Sihirin Hausawa). Kundin digiri na biyu wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Nazarin Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

Gobir, Y. A. & Sani, A-U. (2017). The Jinn, Women Vulnerabilities and The Act of Healings in The Hausa Communities Of 21st Century. In IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS, Volume 23, Issue 1, ver. 5 (January. 2018) PP 67-73 e-ISSN: 2279-0837, p-ISSN: 2279-0845.

Gobir, Y. A. & Sani, A-U. (2018). Traces of Supernatural in Hausa Oral Songs: A Special Reference to Dr. Mamman Shata. In International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research, vol. 05, Issue 04, pp 3755-3760. ISSN: 2350-0743.

Gobir, Y. A. (2002). Iskoki a Idon ‘Yan Bori da Masu Ruƙiyya. Kundin digiri na biyu wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato

Gobir, Y. A. (2012). Tasirin Iskoki ga Cutuka da Magungunan Hausawa. Kundin digiri na uku wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakkwato

Harold, S. et al (1968). Family Processes and Becoming a Mental Patient. In Stephan, P.S. et al (eds). The Mental Patient: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: MC Graw-Hill Book Company.

Sa’id, B. (edita), (2006). Kamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero. Zaria: Ahmadu Bello University Press Limited.

Sallau, B.A.S. (2000). Wanzanci: Matsayinsa na Al’ada da Sana’a a Ƙasar Hausa. Kundin digiri na biyu wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

Sallau, B.A.S. (2009). Sana’ar Wanzanci da Sauye-Sauyen Zamani. Kundin digiri na uku wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Bayero, Kano.

Sarkin Gulbi, A. (2014). Magani a Ma’auin Karin Magana. Kundin digiri na uku wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Harsunan Nijeriya, Jami’ar Usmanu Danfodiyo, Sakwkato.

Tukur, A. (1988). Nazari a Kna Cututtukan da Suka Shafi Fatar Jiki da Magungunansu a Bahaushiyar Al’ada. Kundin digiri na farko wanda aka gabatar a Sashen Koyar da Harsunan Nijeriya, Jai’ar Bayero, Kano.

 



[1] Masana da dama sun ba da rabe-raben magungunan gargajiya. Daga cikinsu akwai Gobir, (2012: 237).

[2] Wasu daga cikin masana da suka bayyana ma’anar magani sun haɗa da: Ahmad, (1984: 133) da Tukur, (1988 134) da sauransu.

[3] Ɗaya daga cikin manyan hanyoyi da ake bi domin ɗan’adam ya fara cuɗanya da iska shi ne “bori.” Akan yi wa mutum girka, a daidaita iskoki da ke kansa. Hakan na ba da dama ga ɗan’adam domin ya fara mu’amala da iskokin da ke tare da shi, (Gobir & Sani, 2018: 69-70).

[4] Takardar ta yi la’akari da cewa, magungunan biyan buƙata ba su tsaya kan “na alkairi” da “na sharri” kawi ba. Sun haɗa har da na “son kai.” A fassarar Ƙamusun Hausa na Jami’ar Bayero, alheri na nufin (i) Kirki ko aiki na gari, (ii) Kyauta ko baiwa, (iii) Buɗi ko riba ko albarka ko arziki ko amfani da falala. A taƙaice kenan, alheri ya shafi farar aniya da farin aiki. Su kuwa magungunan biyan buƙata, ko dai an yi su ne domin cutarwa ko kuma wani abu da ke da dangantaka da Son kai. Misali, bi-ta-zai-zai da maganin neman mulki duka son kai ne ƙarara. Wane Son kai ne ya wuce mutum ya tilasta wa wani ya so shi? Wanne ne ya wuce mutum ya nace ala tilas sai ya zama shugaba? Me zai hana shi aikata abin da za a ga cancantarsa a ba shi shugabancin?

[5] Wannan cuta ce da ta shafi yawan shan ruwa ba tare da an daina jin ƙishin ruwan ba (Gobir, 2012: 273).

[6] Aikin Sallau (2000) da (2009) ya kawo cikakken bayani dangane da sana’ar wanzanci da kuma ire-iren ayyukan da wanzamai ke yi. A ciki ya kawo nau’ukan magungunan da wanzamai ke bayarwa.

Adds You May Like